Although European public opinion on immigrants has been monitored closely in recent years, there is little work that differentiates attitudes towards legal versus illegal immigrants. This study explores variations in public attitudes in Europe between legal and illegal immigration through multivariate hierarchical modelling. It shows that Europeans’ anti-immigrant attitudes are rooted in their concerns more about illegal immigrants. The results also indicate that public opinion in countries with larger immigrant populations is concerned significantly about the illegal immigrants.
European public opinion, Immigration, Legal immigrants, Illegal immigrants, Multilevel modelling
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.Material published in the JCER is done so under a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 licence, with copyright remaining with the author.
- Articles published online in the JCER cannot be published in another journal without explicit approval of the JCER editor.
- Authors can 'self-archive' their articles in digital form on their personal homepages, funder repositories or their institutions' archives provided that they link back to the original source on the JCER website. Authors can archive pre-print, post-print or the publisher's version of their work.
- Authors agree that submitted articles to the JCER will be submitted to various abstracting, indexing and archiving services as selected by the JCER.